One of the oldest and nowadays the cheapest way to extract water is a well. It is like a water storage tank in which water enters over a long period of time from groundwater or springs coming from deeper layers of the earth, but mainly rainwater enters the wells, which gradually seeps into the ground over a large area and then collects through gravel, sand or rock.
Water quality in a well can range from very good to very poor. When digging a well, special attention should be paid to its location, geological parameters of the land plot, water quality. In agriculturally active areas, there is a risk of mineral fertilizers, pesticides, livestock and industrial contamination entering the well, as well as frogs, insects and rodents, which can cause serious bacteriological contamination.
The advantage of a well is the natural deironing of water, because the large surface of the water in contact with the air oxidizes the iron, turning it into rust. This oxidized iron becomes a mechanical particle that settles to the bottom of the well, so the installation of a mechanical filter is usually sufficient for such water to capture iron particles.
It should be noted that most of the water in the wells has a high hardness content and often high oxidizability. Therefore, it is popular to install water softening or organic reduction equipment.
In Latvia, the most commonly used are ring wells, their depth usually does not exceed 10 meters. They can be installed with your own strength, but it is mostly entrusted to professionals who know how to determine the most suitable excavation site and the nature of the particular land, so that the well lasts longer and the rings do not sink. In Latvia, drinking water is most often obtained in the Quaternary sand layer.
Nowadays, it is offered to equip wells with water pumps that provide water supply to the consumer. However, the advantage of a well is that in an emergency, water can be drawn simply with a bucket and does not necessarily require electricity and a pump.